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  • A Primer of GIS Fundamental - Geographic and Cartographic Concepts

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    内容提示: A PRIMER OF GIS A PRIMER OFFUNDAMENTAL GEOGRAPHICAND CARTOGRAPHIC CONCEPTSFrancis HarveyTHE GUILFORD PRESSNew York London © 2008 The Guilford PressA Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012www.guilford.comAll rights reservedNo part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, orotherwise, without written permission from the Publishe...

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    A PRIMER OF GIS A PRIMER OFFUNDAMENTAL GEOGRAPHICAND CARTOGRAPHIC CONCEPTSFrancis HarveyTHE GUILFORD PRESSNew York London © 2008 The Guilford PressA Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012www.guilford.comAll rights reservedNo part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, orotherwise, without written permission from the Publisher.Printed in the United States of AmericaThis book is printed on acid-free paper.Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataHarvey, Francis (Francis James)A primer of GIS : fundamental geographic and cartographicconcepts / Francis Harvey.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-1-59385-565-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)ISBN-10: 1-59385-565-6 (pbk. : alk. paper)ISBN-13: 978-1-59385-566-6 (hardcover: alk. paper)ISBN-10: 1-59385-566-4 (hardcover : alk. paper)1. Geographic information systems.2. Cartography. I. Title.G70.212.H38 2008910.285—dc222007050932 About the AuthorFrancis Harvey is Associate Professor of Geography at the University of Min-nesota. He has also worked at the University of Kentucky and at a variety ofacademic and professional positions in Germany, Switzerland, and theUnited Kingdom. He has taught GIS courses in other academic and profes-sional programs around the world. His research is wide ranging, with a cur-rent focus on governance of land and spatial data infrastructures. Hereceived his doctorate in 1996 from the University of Washington forresearch on GIS overlay.v PrefaceThe idea behind this book is simple: to put in the hands of people interestedin geographic information systems (GIS), geographic information science,and geospatial science and engineering a book that provides a broad prepa-ration for later work with geographic information, regardless of background.Accordingly, this book explains, with a pragmatic approach, the conceptsand practices of geographic information that underpin GIS. It covers whatand how geographic information represents, analyzes, and communicatesabout human and environmental activities and events on our planet.In order to serve a broad array of readers, this book has four parts that,read sequentially, build on each other to offer a successively deeper under-standing of GIS. Part I introduces the most basic concepts of cartographyand GIS; Part II goes into more detail to offer an overview of the fundamen-tals of cartography and GIS; Part III focuses on specific techniques and prac-tices; Part IV looks at geographic information analysis and sketches out someof the exciting new GIS developments. Each part, or individual chapters, canbe read separately or together with other parts or chapters for courses, semi-nars, training, and workshops to learn about specific conceptual or practicalissues.Most readers should start with the first chapter to make sure they under-stand the key concepts of geographic representation and cartographic repre-sentation. The other parts and chapters can be read as an instructor suggestsor as fits your needs best. Given the breadth of GIS and the diversity of peo-ple reading this book, and its modular structure, some parts of the bookrepeat other parts: the repeated material may be well known to some read-ers, but useful to other readers who need different explanations.The access point sidebars in some chapters provide detailed practicalexamples of how people use geographic information; example sidebars focuson relevant aspects of examples; exercises allow you to apply theories andconcepts to learn skills; in-depth sidebars offer practically oriented detailedvii discussion of theories and concepts. To assist your reading and learning, youwill also find Internet links at the end of each chapter to help you find exam-ples that are relevant to your interests or learning needs.This book provides a conceptual introduction to GIS without requiringthe use of GIS software. Through practical examples and exercises, regard-less of your educational background or interests, you will find in this bookdetailed introductions to the theories, concepts, and skills you will need toprepare for working with GIS.AcknowledgmentsMany people are explicitly connected to the writing of this book; many moreimplicitly. Above all I am happy to thank Martin Galanda for discussions inconjunction with the GEOG 1502 course we teach at the University of Min-nesota. My other colleagues in the Department of Geography have beenhelpful on many occasions, particularly Mark Lindberg, Jonathan Schroeder,and Julia Rauchfuss, who were a great aid in preparing many of the figures.Over the years, numerous discussions with colleagues from the UniversityConsortium of Geographic Information Science have led to the refinementof many of the concepts and skills I cover in this book. Colleagues andfriends from around the world have also helped me out in various ways.I thank the following people for discussions and contributions: AdamIwaniak, Marek Baranowski, Brett Black, Omair Chaudhry, Nathan Clough,Jason Dykes, Dietmar Grünreich, Peter Fisher, Randy Johnson, Chris Lloyd,William Mackaness, Robert McMaster, Lori Napoleon, AnnamariaOrla-Bukowska, and Nick Tate. I most of all want to thank Alicja Piaseckaand Anna Piasecka for their support during the many hours spent writingand revising this book.Without their help I could not have written this book; any misinterpreta-tions or errors in the presentations or translations remain my sole responsi-bility.viii / Preface ContentsPART ICommunication and Geographic UnderstandingChapter 1Goals of Cartography and GI: Representation and Communication3Chapter 2Choices in How We Make Representations34Chapter 3GI and Cartography Issues53PART IIPrinciples of GI and CartographyChapter 4Projections75Chapter 5Locational and Coordinate Systems102Chapter 6Databases, Cartography, and Geographic Information127Chapter 7Surveying, GPS, Digitization139ix Chapter 8Remote Sensing160Chapter 9Positions, Networks, Fields, and Transformations174PART IIIAdvanced Issues in GI and CartographyChapter 10Cartographic Representation193Chapter 11Map Cultures, Misuses, and GI221Chapter 12Administration of Spaces235PART IVGI Analysis: Understanding Our WorldChapter 13GI Analysis and GIS253Chapter 14Geostatistics271Chapter 15Futures of GIS290Index301x / Contents Part ICommunication andGeographic Understanding Chapter 1Goals of Cartography and GI:Representation and CommunicationMany of our representations and communications about things and eventsaround us, in history, even in the future, rely on geography and cartography.Usually we simply forget how commonplace maps and geographic informa-tion are, so maybe you have never given it much thought. Nevertheless, mapsand geographic information are essential to how we know the world. Theendless complexity of the world around us presents us with a multitude ofchoices about what to represent and how to represent that complexity in theform of maps and as geographic information.Right now, take a look out a window. If you have a map of the samearea, also look at that map. Compare your view to the map or to a map youremember of the place you are looking at. They are obviously different. Tryto make a list of the differences. What is different between the view and themap? There are many, many differences: trees, buildings, or sidewalks maybe missing on the map, the color of the road on the map may set it apartfrom other roads, the connections between roads may be much plainer onthe map than what you can see. How and why geographic information andmaps are different from our experiences and observations are importantquestions that this book will help you understand. Geographic informationsystems (GIS) involve many issues and choices and you are just at the begin-ning of the book; this chapter and the following two chapters provide a gen-eral introduction, with more detail to come in the other chapters of thebook. As you read this and look at the map and out the window at the samearea, you can start thinking about how your observations and perceptions ofthings outside are different from the map: some things are missing, somethings are simplified, and some things are exaggerated on a map. Geo-graphic information and maps are representations that follow a number ofprinciples and conventions that help deal with the complexity of the world3 and guide choices that lead to clear communication. Should the map includesidewalks? Will the geographic information describe the height of buildings?Are trees distinguished by species? These choices also will determine the waylocations on the spherical earth are transformed to a two-dimensional plane,the types of colors and symbols to use, and the types of questions that peoplewill turn to the map or geographic information to help find answers for.Consider two other examples that highlight the different types of repre-sentation used in maps and geographic information (i.e., the data stored ona computer that contains information for making maps or conducting analy-sis) and point to some of the principles and conventions that guide mappingchoices. First are maps of continents or subcontinents. You may never actu-ally have seen the entire United States, all of Europe, or all of southern Asiain person, but you know something about how they are geographically orga-4 / COMMUNICATION AND GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGThree modern maps showing geology,landforms, and political boundaries; each relies on dif-ferent forms of geographic representation and carto-graphic representation to communicate particularmeanings. Concepts and conventions of color andscale are crucial to assuring that their intended audi-ences understand each map. nized through maps. Second, consider maps you use to help you get aroundthe place where you live. You may know the way to go when you travel towork or school partly from descriptions prepared with the help of geogra-phers and maps made by cartographers. Starting with these two examples, ifyou pause to think about the many different uses and roles of geography andcartography in the last 500 years (an arbitrary period), starting with the Euro-pean period of exploration and colonization, we can conclude that geogra-phers and cartographers have helped people to understand, navigate, con-trol, and govern most of our world for millennia. Your world and the wholeworld would be much different without geography and cartography. We relyon these representations and the principles and conventions behind them tomake sense out of the world in many different ways—sometimes geographicinformation and maps may be the only way to know something, other timesthey are important complements to other things we know or can ask. Princi-ples are standard procedures that people in a field follow—for example, whena cartographer chooses a projection to make a map. Conventions are uses orprocedures agreed upon by experts, but usually they have become commonknowledge—for example, that north is the direction oriented at the top of amap. Sometimes we are sure about how things are geographically organized,but sometimes we may be less certain. We probably know where the city welive in lies in relationship to the coastline, but we may be less sure aboutGoals of Cartography and GI / 5Three thematic maps from the 19th century that demonstrate different geographicrepresentations and cartographic representations.From www.davidrumsey.com. Reprinted by permission of David Rumsey. whether New York or Boston is further to the east. A good representationtakes these issues into account to assure that its readers or users find the rep-resentation helpful in communication.Modern geography and cartography share many principles and conven-tions that form a symbiotic relationship, which make up an important basisfor the geographic representation of the world in other scientific and profes-sional fields. We define them in this book as follows. Geography analyzes andexplains human and environmental phenomena and processes taking placeon the earth’s surface, thereby improving our understanding of the world.Cartography develops the theories, concepts, and skills for describing andvisualizing the things and events or patterns and processes from geographyand communicating this understanding. In this book things refer to ele-ments of the world that are static, either by their nature or by definition.Events refer to selected moments in a process. Both are representationsinvolving our innate cognitive capabilities and culturally and socially influ-enced knowledge of the world. What geography analyzes and explains, car-tography communicates visually. Geography and cartography are dynamicsubjects that involve a broad set of theories, concepts, and skills thatundergo constant development and refinement as knowledge, culture, andtechnology change. Because of their usefulness, geography and cartographyare parts of many other human activities and disciplines. Biologists, geneti-cists, architects, planners, advertisers, soldiers, and doctors are just a few ofthe scientists and professionals who use geography and cartography. How-ever because geography and cartography are so commonplace, they areoften easy to overlook. If you want to understand how to use and communi-cate better with maps, then you need to examine them closely and under-stand how and why geographic information and maps are different fromwhat you see and observe. With a greater understanding of geography’s andcartography’s principles, conventions, and underlying basic concepts, youwill be able to work better in any field.For most people, maps are the most common way to learn about geog-raphy. But geographic information is very significant and continues to gainin importance. Geography and cartography have always been interdisciplin-ary fields. Many other disciplines and fields of human endeavor have drawnon their knowledge and skills and continue to do so. Recent technologicalinnovations further broaden possibilities for people to make measurementsof geographic things and events, operate and transform these measure-ments, and represent the measurements as information and maps. They pro-duce geographic information, which is very easy to copy between computers,but often very hard to get out of the hands of the people and organizationswho are responsible for that geographic information. Certainly, the circle ofpeople working with concepts from geography and cartography has growntremendously in the last 20 years. This has much to do with the increasedavailability of computers and programs for working with digital geographicinformation. That term sounds simple, but turns out to be highly complex.You might want to think about geographic information as you would aboutoxygen: you can’t necessarily see it, but its presence has positive effects for6 / COMMUNICATION AND GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDING people. Maps rely on geographic information. Geographic information is, ofcourse, very different from maps in many ways. One of the most fundamen-tal differences is that geographic information is very, very easy to change,whereas maps, if changed, are usually somehow destroyed. This means thatgeographic information can be used many times, which gives it a greatadvantage over maps.Indeed, many geographers and cartographers would claim that geo-graphic information makes geography and cartography more accessible thanever before. Farmers use global positioning system (GPS) technologies andsatellite images to help disperse fertilizers and pesticides more accurately,safely, and economically. Fire departments route fire trucks to their destina-tions based on analysis of road networks and real-time traffic information.You may even have had the chance to experience these changes or to useGPS when navigating a boat, planning a trip, or driving a car. Many cars nowcome equipped with satellite navigation systems that rely on dashboard mapdisplays to help drivers find their way. GIS is used also in many researchfacilities and offices to help analyze and manage resources. Improved geo-graphic and cartographic technology has played a key part in important eco-nomic developments not only now, but in the past as well. The astrolabeused by navigators in the Middle Ages changed the way locations were deter-mined and mapped; exploration consequently became more accurate andGoals of Cartography and GI / 7Geographic information and maps show things and events from built and naturalenvironments. The primary difference is change. Things are static for the observer, whereas eventsrecord selected moments of a process. safer. Offset printing, introduced in the late 19th century, made it possibleto produce series of maps by using combinations of different plates; mapsbecame commonplace in books, magazines, and newspapers. The most sig-nificant current geographic and cartographic innovations arise from thecomputer and the development of information technology for processingdata during the last 40 years. The fields of geography and cartographyentered an unparalleled period of symbiosis with the introduction of infor-mation technology for processing geographic information. This symbiosisresulted in a new field called geographic information systems (GIS), which,since the 1960s work by Roger Tomlinson, Edgar Horwood, William Warntz,and many others has grown into a major information technology field and ascience.People from many academic backgrounds correctly point out that therelationship between geography and cartography has changed and continuesto change as a result of technological change; sometimes they even questionthe future of cartography because of GIS. Now, some people assume, com-puters can do all cartography. However, it is apparent that many of the keygeographic and cartographic concepts established over thousands of yearsremain important. In fact, one could claim that these fields are really notchanging conceptually, but only in degrees. As information technologybecomes commonplace, many more people are now able to do things with-out the years of training that only cartographers and geographers previouslyhad. Of course, because of all the people now doing work with geographyand cartography on computers, one could also argue that the underlyingconcepts and skills of geography and cartography have become more rele-vant. Both are certainly true; however, without understanding of the con-cepts and skills, the best intentions can easily go wrong. Obviously, profes-sionals always need to produce the highest quality maps and always benefitfrom better understanding of the concepts and skills—regardless of what andhow much information technology is capable of doing.8 / COMMUNICATION AND GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGTABLE 1.1. Some Common Things and Their RepresentationsGeographic Representation(Basic)Cartographic RepresentationStreamLineColor blueRoadLine (usually)Color black or redForestPolygonColor greenIndustryPolygonColor grayCounty or districtPolygonDashed boundary lineWellPointCircle with crossLand parcelPolygonThin black boundary lineHousePolygonThick black outlineLakePolygonColor blueParkPolygonColor greenSand dunesPolygonBlack dots on sand-colored background Representation and CommunicationIn this book, you will learn about both the old concepts and the new con-cepts within cartography and geography. You will find that the old and thenew concepts of geography merge with new information technologies in rep-resentation and communication, the two essential activities of geographyand cartography. In this book “representation” refers to the active process ofobserving the world and symbolizing those observations to make meaning.“Communication” means the process of presenting these representations bysome people and the viewing, or reading, of those representations by otherpeople. Geographers and cartographers are always involved in communica-tion, for even if it is not their immediate goal, maps and geographic informa-tion are always made to share information and knowledge about the world.A “geographic representation” is the specific process of abstracting observa-tions of the world into things or events, often resulting in a model. “Things”are the results of activities, measured properties of objects or features, anddistinct characteristics about people, places, or situations. “Events” arerecords of processes—for example, the movement of cars and trucks, theflow of water, the melting of ice, or the spread of a disease. A “cartographicrepresentation” involves the process of symbolizing the geographic represen-tation. Successfully communicating information about things and eventsrequires you to know something about geographic representation and carto-graphic representation. These two concepts include color, symbology, mod-eling, projections, and, now with GIS, spatial database queries and attributetypes (all covered in later chapters).This book considers representation and communication as related andfundamental topics in geography and cartography. A peculiar geographicfascination is common among people working with GIS, whether they workfor a utility company, a county government, a university administration, or acorporate marketing department: How can the infinite complexity of theearth’s surface and related processes be reliably represented? This seeminglyabstract question touches on the key issues these people have become awareof through their education, training, and work experiences. They mustdecide how to represent selected things as patterns that show important ele-ments and processes in relationship to the places where they take place. Fig-ure 1.4 shows simplistically a few basic choices and the different ways eventscan be represented either by highlighting the process or by translating thesite of the process into a pattern. How representation is chosen also mustconsider the context of the intended communication, particularly thereader’s/user’s knowledge and background: How well does the applicationor map correspond to what the readers/users know or could know? Are dataavailable to provide that information? How long would it take to acquire newdata? The issues include many specific questions—for example, Is it sufficientto show trees as points where their trunks are located or as areas that showthe reach of the foliage?The answers to the question of representation usually come back toGoals of Cartography and GI / 9 choices and quality. There are many choices: How much detail is needed forthe geographic information or map? Will a poster-size paper map be neededfor the detail or does it have to fit on a small handout? How accurate shouldit be? How big should (or can) it be? If this is a computer application, will thedata be available on a CD-ROM or a DVD, or will it be downloadable overthe Internet? How big is the screen display? The type of communication andthe background of potential users also need to be taken into consideration:Will specialists use the map or application? How much knowledge do theyhave about the area? What is/are the specialists’ purpose or purposes? Howmuch contextual information is required? How abstract can the representa-tion be? How reliable must the representation be? Each decision influencesquality in complex ways. If the map needs to fit on a small piece of paper,but the area of an entire state or province needs to be shown, it will be verydifficult to show a great deal of detail.Issues related to wise choices and quality come back to perennial issuesfor geographic representation. The space of the earth’s surface is limited,but because all geographic information is an abstraction with no limit to thenumber of choices we may make in presenting it, geography’s potential rep-resentations are unlimited. The space of the earth’s surface shows itself inpeculiar characteristics in every representation. How close objects are onpaper or on the screen depends on the relationship between the size of therepresentation and the actual area on the ground. This is what geographersrefer to as “scale.” Scale is a crucial component of geographic representationand cartographic communication. Of course, people think objects closertogether on a map are more related to each other than objects far apart, butif you consider the scale of the representation, even-close objects may actu-ally be very distant from one another. The issue of scale is a particularly cen-10 / COMMUNICATION AND GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGEvents can be represented in maps as both processes and patterns. tral concept for all geographic information because of the ways it allows andrestricts representation, the communication of relationships between things,and the interpretation of geographic associations.The Power of MapsSuccessful answers to these questions and attention to the decisions made inrepresenting geography are what gives geographic information power andmakes maps powerful, to borrow from Denis Wood’s thoughtful writingabout maps. A map or geographic information application is selective andgreatly limited, but it remains a key means of understanding and analyzingthe world. This power is very attractive and lucrative; its misuse and abuselend support to many ill-conceived projects.Maps are powerful for a number of reasons. But perhaps the most ele-mentary reason is that they offer an authoritative representation of thingsand events in the world that we cannot otherwise experience in a singlemoment. Most maps, even the most mundane kind of map—for example,one showing temperatures across North America—show us things, events,and relationships that you could never experience yourself in a similar com-plete but quickly grasped form. You can read a book, look at a photograph,watch a film, check things out on the Web, but a successful map easily andquietly combines much detail into a synoptic whole.Goals of Cartography and GI / 11The power of maps depends on the currency of the map. In 1844, when this mapwas prepared for the U.S. State Department, it played an important role in helping people under-stand the Texas conflict.From www.davidrumsey.com. Reprinted by permission of David Rumsey. Perhaps the second elementary reason why maps are so powerful is thatthey represent something beyond our own limited experience: other peopleand places you may never see in person, other things or events that we maynever know about otherwise. They became a key source of informationabout people and places we can’t experience because of distance or becauseof complexity. Maps become a primary source of information for manythings since we often cannot verify what they tell us. Is the Eiffel Towerlocated at the center of Paris? Unless you are in Paris or will be shortly thatcannot be determined except by using a map.The power of maps comes through their ability to create representa-tions of the world that most people won’t question because they lack thedirect experience of the people or places, things, or events to evaluate therepresentations. It is very hard to know that a representation implicitlymakes a threat out of a neighbor, errs in creating symbols that mask impor-tant details, or explicitly shows a part of the world in a biased manner. Usingred to show the country of one’s enemy awakens a sense of menace becausemost people associate the color red with danger. Showing a country in greenhas the opposite impact. Because they follow frameworks and conventionsthat we have become used to, slight distortions are easily veiled and becomeundistinguishable.Maps are often misused and have become important tools for propa-ganda and advertising (see Chapter 11). Extreme examples clearly showabuse of cartographic integrity, but you also need to be wary of more com-mon and subtle misuse of map power to create biased representations.12 / COMMUNICATION AND GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGThe power of maps is significant forassociating organizations with a nation or region. Thissign for the Polish Tourist Association uses an iconicrepresentation of Poland’s national boundaries. Types of MapsThree of the most common types of maps are thematic, topographic, andcadastral. There are many ways to develop typologies of maps, but thesethree types seem to distinguish both how and why maps are used. Thematicmaps are the most common: they show specific topics and their geographicrelationships and distributions. Thematic maps show us the weather fore-cast, election results, poverty, soil types, and the spread of a virus. Topo-graphic maps—from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), for exam-ple—show the physical characteristics of land in an area and the builtchanges in the landscape. Cadastral maps show how land is divided into realproperty, and sometimes the kinds of built improvements. How each type ofmap is made with geographic information is a question that you will be ableto answer generally at the end of Part 1. You can find out about the specificGoals of Cartography and GI / 13Maps are generally distinguished by scale and whether they are thematic or topo-graphic in nature. Each type shown here is characterized by different geographic representationand cartographic representation choices. concepts and skills in Parts 2 and 3. The types shown here are an arbitraryselection intended to show how types of maps vary at different scales.Mental MapsMany people find that mental maps are a great way to start thinking abouthow maps represent and communicate about the world. Thematic, topo-graphic, and cadastral maps are useful for communication because they fol-low known and accepted conventions, but they often have little in commonwith our day-to-day experiences. Mental maps are much stronger on thispoint, but suffer from weaknesses as a reliably understood means of commu-nication. Mental maps communicate what an individual knows and can drawabout some aspect and part of the world. A mental map represents particu-lar geographic relationships based on the experience of an individual. Amental map communicates those relationships from the perceptions of oneor sometimes a small group of people, but often can be difficult to under-stand without some form of description or use of standardized cartographicrepresentations.Based on human perception and behavior, Kevin Lynch developed men-tal maps in the 1950s as a planning technique for understanding how a citywas legible. “Legible,” for Lynch, meant how well the structure and organiza-tion of a city helps supports people’s lives by being easily understood andrequiring a minimum of effort. Using systematized graphic elements, Lynchcartographically represented people’s mental maps of the city to show howthey perceived and moved about the city. Mental maps are often used tohelp planners gain a better understanding of what features in the city needimprovement or change. Many researchers have gone on to use mental mapsalong these lines to assess gender, race, or age differences in urban experi-ences and life. It is important to remember that mental maps generally lack aconsistent scale or set of symbols. Because they are usually purpose-orientedand based on the selective memory and knowledge of one person or group,they are incomplete by nature and often hard for others to use. For example,in Figure 1.8, the dashed lines connecting the person’s home neighborhoodto downtown could indicate any distance; the readers of the map can onlyknow how great or small a distance if they know the drawer or the area.Geography and Cartography in HarmonyTo successfully use GIS and make informative maps, geographic representa-tion and cartographic communication must work together. Before gettinginto the details later in the book, let’s look at the how geographers and car-tographers usually understand and represent the world. You may alreadyknow how your field or profession makes geographic information and maps.However, your work with maps and geographic information may greatly ben-efit from thinking about the conventions in your field or profession and the14 / COMMUNICATION AND GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDING assumptions that go along with them. Much of this discussion can easilybecome part of complex philosophical discussions about existence, knowl-edge, and representation, but we will skip that for now to sketch out morepragmatically what many geographers and cartographers think about whenfiguring out how to understand, analyze, and represent the world around us.You need to get a basic idea of how maps and geographic informationrequire a multifaceted framework with many conventions. Underst...

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