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    内容提示: PracticingSoftware Engineeringin the 21st Centuryedited byJoan PeckhamUniversity of Rhode Island, USAandScott J. LloydUniversity of Rhode Island, USAIRM PressPublisher of innovative scholarly and professionalinformation technology titles in the cyberageHershey • London • Melbourne • Singapore • Beijing Acquisitions Editor:Senior Managing Editor:Managing Editor:Typesetter:Copy Editor:Cover Design:Printed at:Mehdi Khosrow-PourJan TraversAmanda AppicelloJennifer WetzelHeidi J. HormelMichelle WatersIn...

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    PracticingSoftware Engineeringin the 21st Centuryedited byJoan PeckhamUniversity of Rhode Island, USAandScott J. LloydUniversity of Rhode Island, USAIRM PressPublisher of innovative scholarly and professionalinformation technology titles in the cyberageHershey • London • Melbourne • Singapore • Beijing Acquisitions Editor:Senior Managing Editor:Managing Editor:Typesetter:Copy Editor:Cover Design:Printed at:Mehdi Khosrow-PourJan TraversAmanda AppicelloJennifer WetzelHeidi J. HormelMichelle WatersIntegrated Book TechnologyPublished in the United States of America byIRM Press (an imprint of Idea Group Inc.)701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Suite 200Hershey PA 17033-1240Tel: 717-533-8845Fax: 717-533-8661E-mail: cust@idea-group.comWeb site: http://www.irm-press.comand in the United Kingdom byIRM Press3 Henrietta StreetCovent GardenLondon WC2E 8LUTel: 44 20 7240 0856Fax: 44 20 7379 3313Web site: http://www.eurospan.co.ukCopyright © 2003 by IRM Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may bereproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy-ing, without written permission from the publisher.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataPeckham, Joan, 1948- Practicing software engineering in the 21st century / Joan Peckham andScott J. Lloyd. p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-931777-50-0 -- ISBN 1-931777-66-7 1. Software engineering. I. Lloyd, Scott J. II. Title. QA76.758.P42 2003 005.1--dc21 2002156236ISBN: 1-931777-50-0eISBN: 1-931777-66-7British Cataloguing in Publication DataA Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. Other New Releases from IRM PressExcellent additions to your institution’s library!Recommend these titles to your Librarian!To receive a copy of the IRM Press catalog, please contact(toll free) 1/800-345-4332, fax 1/717-533-8661,or visit the IRM Press Online Bookstore at: [http://www.irm-press.com]!Note: All IRM Press books are also available as ebooks on netlibrary.com as well as other ebooksources. Contact Ms. Carrie Stull Skovrinskie at [cstull@idea-group.com] to receive a completelist of sources where you can obtain ebook information orIRM Press titles.• Multimedia and Interactive Digital TV: Managing the Opportunities Created byDigital Convergence/Margherita Pagani ISBN: 1-931777-38-1; eISBN: 1-931777-54-3 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Virtual Education: Cases in L earning & Teaching Technologies/ Fawzi Albalooshi(Ed.), ISBN: 1-931777-39-X; eISBN: 1-931777-55-1 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Managing IT in Government, Business & Communities/Gerry Gingrich (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-40-3; eISBN: 1-931777-56-X / US$59.95 / © 2003• Information Management: Support Systems & Multimedia Technology/ George Ditsa(Ed.), ISBN: 1-931777-41-1; eISBN: 1-931777-57-8 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Managing Globally with Information Technology/Sherif Kamel (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-42-X; eISBN: 1-931777-58-6 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Current Security Management & Ethical Issues of Information Technology/RasoolAzari (Ed.), ISBN: 1-931777-43-8; eISBN: 1-931777-59-4 / US$59.95 / © 2003• UML and the Unified Process/Liliana Favre (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-44-6; eISBN: 1-931777-60-8 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Business Strategies for Information Technology Management/Kalle Kangas (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-45-4; eISBN: 1-931777-61-6 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Managing E-Commerce and Mobile Computing Technologies/Julie Mariga (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-46-2; eISBN: 1-931777-62-4 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Effective Databases for Text & Document Management/Shirley A. Becker (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-47-0; eISBN: 1-931777-63-2 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Technologies & Methodologies for Evaluating Information Technology in Business/Charles K. Davis (Ed.), ISBN: 1-931777-48-9; eISBN: 1-931777-64-0 / US$59.95 / © 2003• ERP & Data Warehousing in Organizations: Issues and Challenges/Gerald Grant(Ed.), ISBN: 1-931777-49-7; eISBN: 1-931777-65-9 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Practicing Software Engineering in the 21st Century/Joan Peckham & Scott J. Lloyd(Eds.), ISBN: 1-931777-50-0; eISBN: 1-931777-66-7 / US$59.95 / © 2003• K nowledge Management: Current Issues and Challenges/Elayne Coakes (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-51-9; eISBN: 1-931777-67-5 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Computing Information Technology: The Human Side/Steven Gordon (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-52-7; eISBN: 1-931777-68-3 / US$59.95 / © 2003• Current Issues in IT Education/Tanya McGill (Ed.) ISBN: 1-931777-53-5; eISBN: 1-931777-69-1 / US$59.95 / © 2003 Practicing Software Engineering inthe 21st CenturyTable of ContentsPreface.......................................................................................................... viiJoan Peckham, University of Rhode Island, USAScott J. Lloyd, University of Rhode Island, USASection I: System DesignChapter I. Integrating Patterns into CASE Tools................................. 1Joan Peckham, University of Rhode Island, USAScott J. Lloyd, University of Rhode Island, USAChapter II. Petri Nets with Clocks for the Analytical Validation ofBusiness Process ....................................................................................... 11Gabriel Vilallonga, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, ArgentinaDaniel Riesco, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, ArgentinaGermán Montejano, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, ArgentinaRoberto Uzal, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, ArgentinaChapter III. Software and Systems Engineering:Conflict and Consensus ............................................................................. 26Rick Gibson, American University, USAChapter IV. Lean, Light, Adaptive, Agile and Appropriate SoftwareDevelopment: The Case for a Less Methodical Methodology........... 42John Mendonca, Purdue University, USAJeff Brewer, Purdue University, USAChapter V. How to Elaborate a Use Case .............................................. 53D. C. McDermid, Edith Cowan University, AustraliaChapter VI. A Rigorous Model for RAISE SpecificationsReusability ................................................................................................... 63Laura Felice, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia deBuenos Aires, ArgentinaDaniel Riesco, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina Chapter VII. The Application of FOOM Methodology to IFIPConference Case Study ............................................................................. 82Judith Kabeli, Ben-Gurion University, IsraelPeretz Shoval, Ben-Gurion University, IsraelSection II: Managing Software ProjectsChapter VIII. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model for theManagement of Software Projects ........................................................... 97Dan Shoemaker, University of Detroit Mercy, USAChapter IX. Software Metrics, Information and Entropy ..................... 116Jana Dospisil, Monash University, AustraliaChapter X. Temporal Interaction Diagrams for Multi-ProcessEnvironments .............................................................................................. 143T. Y. Chen, Swinburne University of Technology, AustraliaIyad Rahwan, University of Melbourne, AustraliaYun Yang, Swinburne University of Technology, AustraliaSection III: Applications and ImplementationsChapter XI. Toward an Integrative Model of Application-SoftwareSecurity ...................................................................................................... 157Vijay V. Raghavan, Northern Kentucky University, USAChapter XII. Learning Systems and their Engineering:A Project Proposal...................................................................................... 164Valentina Plekhanova, University of Sunderland, UKChapter XIII. Towards Construction of Business Components: AnApproach to Development of Web-Based Application Systems ......... 178Dentcho N. Batanov, Asian Institute of Technology, ThailandSomjit Arch-int, Khon Kaen University, ThailandChapter XIV. An OO Methodology Based on the Unified Process forGIS Application Development.................................................................. 195Jesús D. Garcia-Consuegra, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, SpainChapter XV. A Framework for Intelligent Service Discovery ............ 210Robert Bram, Monash University, AustraliaJana Dospisil, Monash University, Australia Chapter XVI. A Service-Based Approach to Components for EffectiveBusiness-IT Alignment ............................................................................. 230Zoran Stojanovic, Delft University of Technology, The NetherlandsAjantha Dahanayake, Delft University of Technology, The NetherlandsChapter XVII. One Method for Design of Narrowband LowpassFilters ........................................................................................................... 258Gordana Jovanovic-Dolecek, National Institute of Astrophysics Optics and Electronics (INAOE), MexicoJavier Diaz-Carmona, Technology Institute of Celaya, MexicoChapter XVIII. Design of Narrowband Highpass FIR Filters UsingSharpening RRS Filter and IFIR Structure ............................................ 272Gordana Jovanovic-Dolecek, National Institute of Astrophysics Opticsand Electronics (INAOE), MexicoAbout the Authors...................................................................................... 295Index...................................................................................................... 304 PrefaceviiSoftware engineering is a term that has a very broad definition. This processincludes the logical design of a system; the development of prototypes, the auto-mated generation of computer code for the system; the testing, validation andbenchmarking of the code and the final implementation of the system. Once a newsystem is up and running, the software engineering process is used to maintain thesystem, evaluate its operation, keep track of new versions and refactor and/or reusethe code for other projects.Over the past 30 years the discipline of software engineering has grown. Insome cases, a specific programming paradigm, such as object-oriented, evolved intoa broad discipline encompassing design and programming processes, tools and tech-niques. Several universities offer degrees as well as courses in software engineer-ing. Standards for software engineering have been incorporated and formalized inEngland, Canada, Australia and the United States. Additionally, software engineer-ing has received recognition from licensing and standards boards such as the Asso-ciation of Computing Machinery (ACM) Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEEE),ISO 9000 and the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP).Although many current design practices are focused on object-oriented tech-niques, this does not limit us to using object-oriented languages. It is quite possible toadopt the methods whether one writes in Fortran, C++ or writes scripts in Perl. Inrecent times the concept of software engineering has expanded to include not onlycode generation and system design, but a set of standards and methods that thesoftware engineer should practice.The practice of software engineering rightfully begins in the requirements phaseof any system project, where the problem to be solved is well defined. Once this iscaptured, the design phase starts. In an effort to avoid the problem of “reinventingthe wheel” a good designer decides what methods and patterns can be drawn fromthe existing software engineering “body of knowledge.” Reusable generic designand code is only one advantage that has been realized today as the libraries offunctions, patterns, and frameworks continue to grow.Automated support for the application and integration of these reusable unitswith newly defined designs and modules using a Computer Aided Software Engi-neering (CASE) tool has created a new lexicon in this field. “Lower CASE” toolsnow refer to code generation while “higher CASE” tools are those tools used in the viiiconstruction and diagramming of proposed computer systems. There have recentlybeen proposals to integrate these two capabilities into a single tool, so that once asystem is proposed and analyzed using standard tools, such as Data Flow Diagrams(DFD), Entity Relationship Diagrams, and Unified Modeling Language (UML), thisinformation is passed to another module of the tool to generate code consistent withthese diagrams.As previously mentioned in this preface, during the past 30 years a generalizedbody of knowledge about design as other aspects of software engineering pro-cesses has emerged with some generally accepted standards. The reader shouldrefer to the “Guide to Software Engineering Body of Knowledge; SWEBOK” fromIEEE Computer Society for an excellent description of this body of common knowl-edge and standards.This book begins with a discussion of software patterns that are used to facili-tate the reuse of object-oriented designs. While most CASE tools support the use ofUML to extract the design from the software engineer and to assist in the develop-ment, most do not provide assistance in the integration and code generation of soft-ware patterns. In this chapter, the authors analyze the Iterator software pattern forthe semantics that would be used in a CASE design tool to help the software engi-neer integrate this pattern into a design and then generate some of the code neededto implement the pattern. This work is based on semantic data modeling techniquesthat were previously proposed for the design of active databases.The next chapter introduces a theoretical frame for processes definition vali-dation in workflow processes with temporal restrictions. Workflow Interface 1 pro-vides the process definition of the Work Flow Reference Model. This interfacecombines PNwC to provide the formalization and verification of systems based onthe Petri Net theory with an extension. This extension allows the specification oftemporal requirements via clock specification, using temporal invariants for the placesand temporal conditions in the transitions. This chapter presents a technique tovalidate the process definition (PD) using Petri Nets with Clocks (PNwC). Thealgorithm for the analysis of a PNwC allows for the correction of errors in themodeling of the time variable. The algorithm generates information about temporalunreachable states and process deadlocks with temporal blocks. It also correctsactivity invariants and transition conditions.The third chapter identifies the key aspects of software engineering and sys-tems engineering in an effort to highlight areas of consensus and conflict. The goalis to support current efforts by practitioners and academics in both disciplines toredefine their professions and bodies of knowledge. By using the Software Engi-neering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model-Integrated (CMMISM) project, whichcombines best practices from the systems and software engineering disciplines, itcan be shown that significant points of agreement and consensus are evident.Nevertheless, valid objections to such integration remain as areas of conflict. It ishoped that this chapter will provide an opportunity for these two communities toresolve unnecessary differences in terminology and methodologies that are reflected ixin their differing perspectives and entrenched in their organizational cultures.Historically the approach to software engineering has been based on a searchfor an optimal (ideal) methodology— the identification and application of a set ofprocesses, methods and tools that can consistently and predictably lead to softwaredevelopment success. The fourth chapter presents the basis for pursuing a moreflexible, adaptive approach. Less methodical techniques under a variety of namestake what is described as a contingency-oriented approach. Because of the limita-tions in the nature of methodology, the high failure rate in software development, theneed to develop methodology within an environmental context and the pressures offast-paced “E” development, the authors argue that further exploration and defini-tion of an adaptive, contingency-based approach to methodology is justified.Chapter V challenges the established wisdom with respect to use cases. Usecases are classically elaborate to capture the functional requirements of the systemby directly identifying objects, methods and data. Several authors of system analysisand design books advocate this approach. However the research reported in thispaper indicates that there are better constructs for modeling use cases, at leastinitially. Further objects are not a particularly good medium for discussing require-ments with users. This paper rehearses the arguments leading up to these conclu-sions and identifies some implications of these conclusions.The theme of system development is continued in Chapter VI. Using theRAISE specification development process, a variety of components and infrastruc-tures are built. These components are not independent and are related to eachother, when the authors specify different systems into the same infrastructure. TheRAISE method is based on the idea that software development is a stepwise, evo-lutionary process of applying semantics-preserving transitions. Reuse is cruciallyimpacted in all the stages of the development, but there is no explicit reference tothe specification of reusability in this development process. This chapter presents arigorous process for reusability using RSL (RAISE Specification Language) com-ponents. The authors provide the mechanism to select a reusable component inorder to guide RAISE developers in the software specification and constructionprocess.The section on system development concludes with Chapter VII. This chap-ter introduces the Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology (FOOM) . This isan integrated methodology for information systems analysis and design that com-bines two essential software-engineering paradigms: the functional/data approach(or process-oriented) and the object-oriented (OO) approach. FOOM has beenapplied to a variety of domains. This chapter presents the application of the method-ology to the specification of the “IFIP Conference” system with focus on the analy-sis and design phases. The FOOM analysis phase includes data modeling and func-tional analysis activities, and produces an initial Class Diagram and a hierarchy ofOO Data Flow Diagrams (OO-DFDs). The products of the design phase include:(a) a complete class diagram; (b) object classes for the menus, forms and reportsand (c) a behavior schema, which consists of detailed descriptions of the methods xand the application transactions expressed in pseudocode and message diagrams.Section II discusses methods to evaluate and manage the system developmentprocess. Chapter VIII presents a comprehensive quantitative management modelfor information technology. This methodology is assessment based and can be easilyimplemented without imposing an unacceptable organizational change. It suppliesdetailed information about the functioning of processes that allows managers to botheffectively oversee operations and assess their prospective and ongoing executionrisks. This offers a consistent risk reward evaluation.Continuing with the theme of measurement and risk assessment Chapter IXdescribes the foundation and properties of specific object-oriented software mea-sures. Many measures for object-oriented applications have been constructed andtested in development environments. However, the process of defining new mea-sures is still alive. The reason for this lies in the difficulties associated with under-standing and maintaining object-oriented applications. It is still difficult to relate themeasures to the phenomena that need to be improved. Do current measurementsindicate problems in reliability, maintenance or the unreasonable complexity of someportions of the application?In order to reduce the complexity of software, new development methodolo-gies and tools are being introduced. The authors talk about a new approach todevelopment called separation of concern. Tools, such as Aspect/J or Hyper/J, fa-cilitate the development process, but there does not seem to be a sound metrics suiteto measure complexity and efficiency of applications developed and coded withAspect/J or Hyper/J. In this chapter, the authors attempt to review the currentresearch into object-oriented software metrics and suggest theoretical frameworkfor complexity estimation and ranking of compositional units in object-oriented appli-cations developed with Hyper/J.Chapter X concludes the managing projects section by introducing a novelnotion of temporal interaction diagrams that can be used for testing and evaluatingdistributed and parallel programming. An interaction diagram is a graphic view ofcomputation processes and communication between different entities in distributedand parallel applications. It can be used for the specification, implementation andtesting of interaction policies in distributed and parallel systems. Expressing interac-tion diagrams in a linear form, known as fragmentation, facilitates automation ofdesign and testing of such systems. Existing interaction diagram formalisms lack theflexibility and capability of describing more general temporal order constraints. Theyonly support rigid temporal order, hence have limited semantic expressiveness. Theauthors propose an improved interaction diagram formalism in which more generaltemporal constraints can be expressed. This enables the capture of multiple validinteraction sequences using a single interaction diagram.Section III discusses specific applications and implementations that are bestsolved by the principles of software engineering. Chapter XI begins this sectionwith relevant security issues that must be considered in any software implementa-tion. While academicians and industry practitioners have long recognized the need xifor securing information systems and computer architectures, there has recentlybeen a heightened awareness of information technology (IT) management on com-puter-related security issues. IT managers are increasingly worried about possibleattacks on computer facilities and software, especially for mission critical software.There are many dimensions to providing a secure computing environment for anorganization, including computer viruses, Trojan horses, unauthorized accesses andintrusions and thefts to infrastructure. This complexity and multidimensional natureof establishing computer security requires that the problem be tackled on manyfronts simultaneously. Research in the area of information systems security hastraditionally focused on architecture, infrastructure and systems level security.Emerging literature on application-level security, while providing useful paradigms,remain isolated and disparate. The current study focuses on single, albeit an impor-tant, dimension of providing a safe and secure computing environment — applica-tion-software security.The book progresses to a specific proposal for learning systems. Chapter XIIpresents a project proposal for future work utilizing software engineering conceptsto produce learning processes in cognitive systems. This project outlines a numberof directions in the fields of systems engineering, machine learning, knowledge engi-neering and profile theory that lead to the development of formal methods for themodeling and engineering of learning systems. This chapter describes a frameworkfor formalization and engineering of the cognitive processes and is based on applica-tions of computational methods. The work proposes the studies of cognitive pro-cesses in software development process, and considers a cognitive system as amulti-agent system of human cognitive agents. It is important to note that this frame-work can be applied to different types of learning systems. There are various tech-niques from different theories (e.g., system theory, quantum theory, neural networks)that can be used for the description of cognitive systems, which, in turn, can berepresented by different types of cognitive agents.Web-based applications are highlighted by Chapter XIII. Global competitionamong today’s enterprises forces their business processes to evolve constantly, lead-ing to changes in corresponding Web-based application systems. Most existing ap-proaches that extend traditional software engineering to develop Web-based appli-cation systems are based on OO methods. Such methods emphasize modeling indi-vidual object behaviors rather than system behavior. This chapter proposes the Busi-ness Process-Based Methodology (BPBM) for developing such systems. It uses abusiness process as a unified conceptual framework for analyzing relationships be-tween a business process and associated business objects, identifying business ac-tivities and designing OO components called business components. The authorspropose measures for coupling and cohesion measurement in order to ensure thatthese business components enable the potential reusability. These business compo-nents can more clearly represent semantic system behaviors than linkages of indi-vidual object behaviors. A change made to one business process impacts someencapsulated atomic components within the respective business component without affecting other parts of the system. A business component is divided into partssuitable for implementation of multi-tier Web-based application systems.Geographic Information Systems (GIS ) are presented in Chapter XIV. Thischapter introduces an OO methodology for GIS development. It argues that a COTS-based development methodology combined with the UML can be extended to sup-port the spatio-temporal peculiarities that characterize GIS applications. The au-thors suggest that by typifying both enterprises and developments, and, with a thor-ough knowledge of the software component granularity in the GIS domain, it will bepossible to extend and adapt the proposed COTS-based methodologies to cover thefull lifecycle. Moreover, some recommendations are outlined to translate the meth-odology to the commercial iCASE Rational Suite Enterprise and its relationshipswith tool kits proposed by some GIS COTS vendors.Chapter XIV makes the claim of improved efficiency and reliability of net-working technology, providing a framework for service discovery where clientsconnect to services over the network. It is based on a comparison of the client’srequirements with the advertised capabilities of those services. Many service direc-tory technologies exist to provide this middleware functionality, each with its owndefault set of service attributes that may be used for comparison and its own defaultsearch algorithms. Because the most expressive search ability might not be as im-portant as robustness for directory services, the search algorithms provided areusually limited when compared to a service devoted entirely to intelligent servicediscovery.To address the above problems, the authors propose a framework of intelligentservice discovery running alongside a service directory that allows the search ser-vice to have a range of search algorithms available. The most appropriate algorithmmay be chosen for a search according to the data types found in the search criteria.A specific implementation of this framework is presented as a Jini service, using aconstraint satisfaction problem solving architecture that allows different algorithmsto be used as library components.Although component-based development (CBD) platforms and technologies,such as CORBA, COM+/.NET and enterprise Java Beans (EJB) are now de factostandards for implementation and deployment of complex enterprise distributed sys-tems, according to the authors of Chapter XVI, the full benefit of the componentway of thinking has not been gained. Current CBD approaches and methods treatcomponents mainly as binary-code implementation packages or as larger grainedbusiness objects in system analysis and design. Little attention has been paid to thepotential of the component way of thinking in filling the gap between business andIT issues. This chapter proposes a service-based approach to the component con-cept representing the point of convergence of business and technology concerns.The approach defines components as the main building blocks of business-drivenservice-based system architecture that provides effective business IT alignment.The book now focuses its attention on specific issues of software engineeringas applied to telecommunications networks. Chapter XVII describes the design ofxii a narrowband lowpass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using a small number ofmultipliers per output sample (MPS). The method is based on the use of a fre-quency-improved recursive running sum (RRS) called the sharpening RRS filterand the interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) structure. The filter sharpeningtechnique uses multiple copies of the same filter according to an amplitude changefunction (ACF), which maps a transfer function before sharpening to a desired formafter sharpening. Three ACFs are used in the design as illustrated in examplescontained in this chapter.The book closes with Chapter XVIII, which describes another telecommuni-cation application. This chapter presents the design of narrowband highpass linear-phase FIR filters using the sharpening RRS filter and the IFIR structure. The nov-elty of this technique is based on the use of a sharpening RRS filter as an imagesuppressor in the IFIR structure. In this way the total number of multiplications peroutput sample is considerably reduced.The purpose of this book is to introduce new and original work from aroundthe world that we believe expands the body of common knowledge in softwareengineering. The order of this book attempts to tell a story, beginning with thesoftware process, including reusable code and specific design methodologies andthe methods associated with this formalized structure. The book then proceeds tochapters that propose models to measure the system analysis and design processand to direct the successful development of computer systems. The chapters thenprogress to the next step in any system project — the implementation phase. Thissection includes various aspects of using and integrating the engineered softwareinto a computer system. Its chapters address security and systems capable oflearning. The book then concludes with specific examples of Web-based and tele-communication applications.xiii AcknowledgmentsThe editors would like to acknowledge the help of all involved in the collationand review process of the book without whose support the project could not havebeen satisfactorily completed. A further special note of thanks goes also to all thestaff at Idea Group Inc., whose contributions throughout the whole process frominception of the initial idea to final publication have been invaluable. In particular, wethank Amanda Appicello who continuously prodded via e-mail to keep the project onschedule and Mehdi Khosrow-Pour whose enthusiasm motivated us to accept theinvitation to take on this project.Obviously in any project of this size it is impossible to remember, let alonemention, everyone who had a hand in this work becoming what it is today. Variousgraduate students and support staff from The University of Rhode Island werecritical in creating this final product. Their support was vital in achieving what wehope is a well-edited publication. The authors deserve the greatest credit becausetheir contributions were essential, giving us great material with which to work.In closing, we again wish to thank all of the authors for their insights andexcellent contributions to this book. We also want to thank all of the people whoassisted us in the reviewing process. Of course our families deserve credit forsimply putting up with us and supporting us. Our thanks to all these people!Joan Peckham, Ph.D.Scott J. Lloyd, Ph.D.Kingston, RI, USASeptember 2002xiv Section ISystem DesignCopyright © 2003, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without writtenpermission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. Integrating Patterns into CASE Tools 1Copyright © 2003, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without writtenpermission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited.Chapter IIntegrating Patterns intoCASE ToolsJoan PeckhamUniversity of Rhode Island, USAScott J. LloydUniversity of Rhode Island, USAABSTRACTSoftware patterns are used to facilitate the reuse of object-oriented designs.While most Computer Aided Softwa...

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